What does penelope check for?

These are the checks that Penelope.ai performs by default. All checks can be turned on or off depending on your journal's specific needs. Let us know if there are any bespoke checks you would like. 

Title Page and Abstract

  • Abstract is structured with correct subheadings

  • Authors and institutions are named on title page

  • Corresponding author and email address are provided

  • Funding section

  • A funder is named

  • Conflicts of interest statement

  • Acknowledgements section

  • Running head is provided

  • List of key words

  • Word count is present on the title page

Ethics and permissions

  • Ethics statements for human/animal research

  • Informed consent for research involving humans


  • Data access statement present

Citations and References

  • All citations are referenced

  • All references are cited

  • Correct referencing system used (Harvard/Vancouver, the generic version suggests Vancouver, but tells authors to double check)

Tables and Figures

  • Accompanied by legends

  • All tables and figures are mentioned in the text

  • Present (or absent) from main manuscript (the generic version suggests tables should be included, but figures should be in a separate file)

Scientific Reporting

  • Encourages the use of reporting checklists from the EQUATOR library when relevant

  • Randomisation, blinding and sample size are addressed for experimental studies

  • Encourages RRIDs for animals and antibodies


  • Clinical trials include a registration ID for a recognised registry

What file formats can Penelope check?

Penelope currently checks Word files. Docx files are best, but if an author uploads a .doc file Penelope will try to convert it into a docx before processing. In the coming months we'll begin accepting other file formats such as LaTeX and PDF. 

How accurate is Penelope?

We test all checks on a set of documents that have been manually labelled, and make sure they perform at 90% or above. Penelope uses a series of probabilistic algorithms which become increasingly accurate as it processes more articles. We constantly monitor Penelope's performance, and will continue to refine it over time as we encounter new documents with different formatting, writing styles and topics.